Laissez-faire. This approach involves letting the users get on with it. We can imagine a dialogue between a user and an IT manager:


User: Iíd like to develop a small database for putting our marketing survey data on. Could you help?

IT Manager: Iím not sure we really can. We donít have the resources to develop a system for you at the moment. Our resources are stretched with the implementation of the new billing system.

User: Well, Iíd like to build it myself. Iíve got MS-Access and it looks simple enough.

IT: Manager: Thatís fine. If you have the resources go ahead. But weíre not in a position to help you. Youíre basically on your own there.

User: (sarcastically) Thanks!



Monopolistic. Often the response to the anarchy which results from a laissez-faire approach is to set up a draconian centralised approach to EUC:


User: Iíd like to develop a small database for putting our marketing survey data on. Could you help?

IT Manager: I donít think weíve got the resources to take on any further projects at the moment. You could try putting in a bid for the autumn steering committee.

User: No, Iíd like to have a go myself. We have some spare money. I could purchase a PCs and I have a little experience of MS-Access.

IT Manager: PC purchasing has to be done through our department.

User: Canít I do it myself?

IT Manager: Frankly, no. PCs have to be authorised by IT. Furthermore we think itís inadvisable that departments go ahead and develop their own systems. We are supporting Personnel in the development of one small system. But thatís under strict control and weíve put a programmer in the Personnel department. We donít want things getting out of control. PCs and user programming are only allowed if authorised by the Finance Director. Even if you were authorised, you would have to use Delphi for program development since that is the standard.

User: OK, Iíll have a word with the Finance Director.



Accelerated. The accelerated approach encourages EUC, but in a passive way:


User: Iíd like to develop a small database for putting our marketing survey data on. Could you help?

IT Manager: Yes, Iíd be pleased to help. Have you got a PC?

User: No, but weíve got a budget set aside for this. The marketing director is eager that we get better intelligence from our marketing data.

IT Manager: That sounds very worthwhile. Well, we can give you a hand in selecting the best PC if you want. Have you decided what database youíre going to use?

User: Iíve got some knowledge of MS-Access.

IT Manager: That seems a reasonable choice. Weíre using Oracle and Delphi, but that might be a bit complex for your purposes. But if you need some extra training in MS-Access Iím sure we could help.

User: Could I come over to discuss the database further.

IT Manager: Sure, how about tomorrow morning?

User: That sounds fine.


Marketing. A marketing approach to EUC actively encourages EUC by making the users aware of the possibilities for management developed systems and encouraging users to make the leap into self-development of systems:


IT Manager: John? Hi. This is Clive from IT. Iíve been told that you gathering quite a lot of information in marketing that you donít know what to do with?

User: Yes, Arthur has expressed some concern about this.

IT Manager: Have you thought of developing your own system to deal with this?

User: The thought had crossed my mind.

IT Manager: You could easily develop a small database which would enable you to organise the data and begin to get good intelligence from it.

User: Would that be difficult?

IT Manager: Not really. Weíll help you to learn MS-Access and take you through some data modelling. I could come across on Wednesday to chat about it. Perhaps we could involve Arthur.

User: That would be very helpful.

IT Manager: When would be convenient?

User: Any time after two.

IT Manager: OK. Make it 2.30 on Wednesday then.



Operation based. A good information service department should aim at a situation where EUC is an accepted and integrated part of the overall IT strategy. In an operation-based approach, EUC is co-ordinated and is a natural part of the computing strategy.


User: Hi, Clive. Will you be at the End User Steering Committee on Wednesday?

IT Manager: Yes. Are you reporting on your marketing system?

User: Yes. Itís going well at the moment.

IT Manager: I see Simonís working with you.

User: Heís helped me with the data model. Weíve now got the tables into MS-Access.

IT Manager: Howís the budget?

User: Fine. We only need Simon for another day.