Harvard Style Short Manual


Textual References

These are also called in-text references

            Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny 1988, p. 223).

            Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little.

            Carlson (1981) obtained results which...

            A recent study (Carlson 1990) ...


When Volumes, Sections or Equations Are Needed

(Jessor 1989, vol. 2, p. 23)

                                    (Jessor 1989, vol. 2, p. 23; vol. 3, pp. 20-41)

                                    (Jessor 1989, sec. 2)

                                    (Jessor 1989, eq. 3)

Two or Three Authors

                                    (Jones & Hackett 1991)

                                    Jones and Hackett (1991) theorized that...

                                    (Boyd, Smith & Eberle 1985)

                                    Boyd, Smith and Eberle (1985) found...

                                    Note: The ampersand is used when the authors' names are in brackets.

More Than Three Authors

Use the first author only followed by 'et al.' For example, a work by Carter, Morton, Duncan-Kemp and Redding becomes:

                                    Carter et al. (1989) discussed library search methods.

Note: Names of all the authors must be given in the list of references.


Multiple Citations of the Same Author

                   Arrange in chronological order, and use suffixes to distinguish works published in the same year.

            Brown (1980, 1983a, 1983b) theorised ...

            Brown (1983a, p. 21; 1983b, p. 85) theorised

Two Authors, Same Surname

            Initials are included to distinguish.

The theory was propounded by A.E. Smith (1981), but has been refuted since (Smith, B.R. 1985).

More Than One Work Cited

                                    (Larsen 1971; Haddon 1969)

Personal Communications

            Initials are included.

                                    (Ayers, R.N. 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).

              M.K. Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...

                                Note: Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.


                                    (ed. Kaufmann 1974)

                                    ... edited by Kaufmann (1974)

Unpublished Works

                                    (Crowley, unpub.)

                                    Crowley (unpub.) argues that...

No Date or Approximate Date

                                    Donovan (n.d.) revealed ...

                        Harris (c. 1751) said...


                                    On Travelling to London (1683) reveals this to be false.

                                    This was not so in seventeenth-century England (On Travelling to London 1683)

                                 Note: Do not use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon'.

No Personal Author, Sponsored by Corporate Body

                                    (CSIRO 1982)

                                    A publication of the Institution of Engineers, Australia (1988) is..

Note: Well known abbreviations such as CSIRO may be used in textual references, but should be spelt out in an alphabetical list of abbreviations. Abbreviations used in textual references should correspond with those in the list of references.


            If authors are given use the principles already stated. If there is no author:

                                    (Weekend Australian 24-25 Jan. 1987, p.19)


                                    Australian Architecture Database, Stanton Library,

AGRIS (database), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation

Secondary Source of Idea

                                    Johns (1980, p.10, cited in Holesworthy 1985, p.19)

The Bible

                                    Psalm 23:6-8

Motion Pictures, Videos and Television

                                    Strictly Ballroom (motion picture) 1992

                                    Understanding the GNP (video recording) 1982

Note: Television productions are identified as video recordings: What Are We Going to Do With the Money ( video recording) 8 August 1982, ABC Television

Direct Quotations

            Brief quotations (about 30 words or less) can be included in text. Use single quotations marks.

                                    Stewart (1982, p. 6) said: 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet'.

'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet' (Stewart 1982, p. 6).


Lengthy quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are indented from both left and right margins. No quotation marks are used. Citations are as above.



In-text citiations of on-line sources:

Journal article

Griffith (1995)

              Web document

            (author known)

                              Klintworth (2000)

Web document

            (no author)

                              http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html (1994)

Web Homepage

  http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/ (2000)


 Creating List of References


Type Of Item



1 author

Cole, G.H.A. 1991, Thermal Power Cycles, Edward Arnold, London.

Government pub.

no author

Department of Energy 1980, Projections of Energy Needs, HMSO, London.


2 authors

Douglas, M. & Watson, C. 1984, Networking, Macmillan, London.



The Eliciting of Frank Answers 1955, Engineering Publications, Florida.

Journal article

4 authors

Gibberd, R., Snow, P.T., Rice, P.G. & Patel, N.B. 1991, 'Nuclear power at what price?' The Bulletin, vol. 113, June 4, pp. 51-5.

Journal article

Jones, B.E. & Jones, S.R. 1987, 'Powerful questions,' Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 10-18.

2 books in 1 year

by same author

King, P. 1984a, Power in Australia, UQP, St. Lucia,

------- 1984b, Solar Power, Macmillan, Melbourne.


Long, P.E. (ed.) 1991, A Collection of Current Views on Nuclear Safety, Penguin, Harmondsworth.


Morton, J.S. 1984, Wind Power: An Overview, 2nd edn, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne

Chapter in an edited book

North, D. 1980, 'Energy use at home', in Energy Conservation, eds S. Scott & N. Peel, Academic Press, London.

Article cited

 in a book

Oppenheim, P.L. 1981, 'Power politics', Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 19-26, quoted in Strong, K. 1985, Advances in Power Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 70.

Newspaper article

Popham, B. 1987, 'Saving the future', Weekend Australian Magazine, 7-8 Feb., p.10.

Newspaper article

 no author

Warsaw Daily News, 24 Jan. 1987, p.10.

Conference paper

Trump, A. 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, International Society of Power Engineers, Houston Texas, pp. 40-51


AGRIS (database), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation, Vendor: Silverplatter, annual updating.

Motion pictures, videos

Learning to Live (motion picture) 1964, London, Fine Films Inc., Producer Martin Freeth.


Herbert, W.G. 1987, The Australian Beef Industry: An Overview, Australian Livestock Council, Canberra, microfiche.

Journal article

on the WWW

Griffith, A.I. 1995, ‘Coordinating family and school: Mothering for schooling’, Education Policy Analysis Archives [Online], vol. 3, no. 1. Available: http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 1997].

Full-text journal article in Electronic Database

Rasid, Z.M. & Parish, T.S. 1998, ‘The effects of two types of relaxation training on students’ levels of anxiety’,    Adolescence [Online], vol. 33, no. 129, p. 99. Available: EBSCOhost : Academic Search Premier, Item: AN589758  [Accessed 23 Sep. 1998].

Newspaper article in Electronic Database

Pianin, E. 25 Feb. 2001, ‘As coal’s fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives’,  The Washington Post [Online], p. A03. Available: Electric Library Australasia, [Accessed 8 Mar. 2001].

Newspaper article on the WWW

Cleary, P. & Lewis, S. 8 Mar. 2001, ‘It’s the end of a long boom’, Australian Financial Review [Online]. Available: http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html [Accessed 8 Mar. 2001].

Discussion List


Wilson, D. 22 Nov. 1995, ‘Summary of citing Internet sites’, NETTRAIN [Online]. Available E-mail: NETTRAIN@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu [Accessed 22 Nov. 1995].

Personal E-mail

Davis, A. (a.davis@uwts.edu.au). 10 Jun. 1996, Learning to use Web Authoring Tools, E-mail to A. Hunter (hunter@usq.edu.au).

Web document

Klintworth, G. 2000, China and Taiwan - From Flashpoint to Redefining One China [Online]. Available: http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/2000-01/01RP15.htm [Accessed 27 Nov. 2000].

Web document

(no author)

Educating America for the 21st Century: Developing a Strategic Plan for Educational Leadership by Columbia University 1993 - 2000 (Initial workshop draft) [Online], 1994. Available: http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html [Accessed 16 May 1995].

Web document

(no publication date)

Sherma, C. n.d., The Invisible Web [Online]. Available: http://www.freepint.co.uk/issues/080600.htm#feature [Accessed 27 Nov. 2000].


Web Homepage

The Body Shop Australia [Homepage of The Body Shop Australia] [Online], 21 Nov. 2000 - last update. Available: http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/ [Accessed 27 Nov. 2000].

Online Images

The Lunar Interior, 2000 [Online image]. Available: http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg [Accessed 28 Nov. 2000].




Should you need any more guidance refer to the


 Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 1994, 5th edn, AGPS, Canberra.


 Li, X. & Crane, N.B. 1996, Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information,

 2nd edn, Information Today, Medford, N.J.